The Scholastic snd Dynamic Role of the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute in Higher Education

by Danielle Brandli

One individual who was involved in the development of education during the 19th century was Booker T. Washington (1856-1915), who founded the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute in 1881 (Tuskegee University). Washington played a large role in the education of the recently liberated African American race after the cessation of the Civil War. The Tuskegee Institute became the medium for Washington’s philosophies of the education of African Americans. At Tuskegee, African Americans were provided with a practical and scholastic education that was much needed during the time period and was meant to lead to dynamic education in the future.

To understand the impact of the Tuskegee Institute on education, we must be familiar with the personal philosophies of the founder, Washington, which were the basis for the education system at Tuskegee, and the events that shaped the formation of his philosophies. To begin, we will investigate the life and education of Washington and highlight key experiences that would shape his educational ideology. The information on Washington’s childhood and education in this essay comes from his autobiography, Up From Slavery, which was published in 1901 (Washington). His autobiography is a first-hand account written by the individual shortly after the specified time period and thus, it can be classified as a primary source, the most credible type source. Up From Slavery also provides further information about the foundation of Tuskegee Institute, Washington’s accomplishments, and Washington’s personal philosophies regarding the education of African Americans.

Booker Taliaferro Washington was born into slavery on April 5th, 1856 in Franklin County, Virginia (Thornbrough 26, Washington 1). Washington’s original name, given to him by his mother, was “Booker Taliaferro” but Washington had only been called “Booker” during his life, thus he was unaware of his full name (Washington 35). When Washington first attended school he thought, “…I knew that the teacher would demand of me at least two names, and I had only one” (Washington 34). Hence, when asked by his teacher for his name, he fabricated a last name and responded that he was “Booker Washington” (Washington 35). This is how his name came to be Booker Taliaferro Washington (Washington 35).

Washington’s mother was a plantation cook named Jane and his father was an unknown white man (Thornbrough 26, Washington 4). Washington knew nothing of the history of his family beyond his mother and her two half-sisters (Washington 2). For the beginning part of his life, Washington lived and worked on a plantation in Virginia with his mother and his siblings (Washington 5). Washington received no education (Washington 6-8). During his time as a slave, Abraham Lincoln became president and the Civil War took place (Washington 8). Being enslaved for part of his life did not cause Washington to reject slavery; however seeing the contrast between whites and African American slaves drove Washington to seek an improved education for himself and later on, for other African Americans as well (Washington 12, 27).

In 1865, the Civil War ended with the adoption of the Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and Washington and his family were emancipated (Thornbrough 26). Once gaining their freedom, Washington’s family moved to Malden, West Virginia and Washington began working in salt-furnaces (Thornbrough 26). Washington viciously sought an education and unsuccessfully tried to teach himself to read (Washington 31). Eventually, he found a way to attend night-classes and then day-classes at the recently founded African American school in town (Washington 31). Washington was continually late for day-school because of the walk from work at the salt-furnace to the school house so he devised a plan to reach school on time (Washington 31-32). In small increments each day, he tediously moved the clock in the salt-furnace forward a half an hour so he could leave work earlier (Washington 32). Eventually the “furnace ‘boss’ discovered that something was wrong, and locked the clock in a case” (Washington 32). Washington made every effort he could to ensure that he received the best education he possibly could, which will also be seen when Washington applies to the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute.

Washington began working in a coal mine after working at the salt-furnace. While working in the mine, Washington heard of the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute from other African American workers and set his mind to attending (Washington 42). Washington did not like working in the mine due to being dirty, being in darkness, and getting lost (Washington 38). Washington switched occupations in 1871 and became a houseboy for the wife of General Lewis Ruffner, the owner of the salt-furnace Washington had previously worked in (Thornbrough 26, Washington 43). As a houseboy, Washington was taught the value of cleanliness which was “…as valuable to [him] as any education [he had] gotten since” (Washington 44). The lessons Washington learned from Mrs. Ruffner, as well as her encouragement of Washington’s efforts to receive an education, would help Washington become a student at the Hampton Institute (Washington 45).

In 1872 after working for Mrs. Ruffner, Washington made the five-hundred mile trip from Malden to Hampton in hopes to attend the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute founded by General Samuel C. Armstrong (1839-1893) in 1868 (Thornbrough 4, Washington 47). Washington was accepted into Hampton by the assistant principal after cleaning a room so thoroughly that the assistant principal could not find a single dust particle (Washington 52-53). Washington graduated from Hampton with honors in 1875 and returned to Malden (Thornbrough 26). Washington’s struggle for and attainment of a higher education was what enabled him to progress education for other African Americans.

Once graduated from Hampton, Washington returned to Malden to teach at a colored school until 1878 (Thornbrough 26). After teaching in Malden for two years, Washington moved to Washington D.C. to attend Wayland Seminary for eight months (Thornbrough 26, Washington 87). At Wayland, Washington deduced that the school’s teachings in Greek and Latin left students with less knowledge about living and functioning in society back at their homes (Washington 88). His time spent at Wayland caused Washington to believe that a practical education was more important than studying Greek philosophy or Latin writings.

In the summer of 1879, General Armstrong requested Washington to revisit the Hampton Institute to become a teacher (Washington 106). Washington returned to Hampton and oversaw the Indian boys and the night school (Thornbrough 26, Washington 106). While Washington was working at Hampton, Armstrong informed him of an opportunity to become the principal of a new school for African Americans in Alabama (Washington 107). Washington pursued the opening and moved to Tuskegee, Alabama to found the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute on July 4th, 1881 (Washington 119). Washington’s connection to General Armstrong during his attendance at Hampton was the basis for Washington’s occupation as an institutional teacher and for Washington becoming the founder and principal of the Tuskegee Institute. Once Washington was in his position as the head-master of Tuskegee, he began his mission to provide a higher education for African Americans.

Prior to the examination of the education system at the Tuskegee Institute, the reader must understand two terms used in this essay, regarding higher education, and their origination. Professor Jackson classifies education into two categories: scholastic and dynamic (Jackson). These terms are significant in the analysis of the role of Tuskegee Institute in higher education. Education can be classified as dynamic when a four step process occurs. This process is “the acquisition of new knowledge, the manipulation of that knowledge to discover new truths, the distribution of those new truths to others, and the archiving of those truths in a manner that future thinkers can easily access them” (Jackson). Dissimilar to the dynamic education systems basis on new truths, scholastic education is a system based on past truths with no recognition of the need to obtain new knowledge (Jackson). These definitions of scholasticism and dynamic education will be referred to throughout the remaining part of this essay.

When the Tuskegee Institute first opened, Washington observed that most educated African Americans during the time period had attained their education through reading books. These educated people “…could locate…the capital of China on an artificial globe…” but not find “…the proper place for the knives and forks on an actual dinner table…” (Washington 123). Washington saw the requirement for a more practical education so that African Americans could survive in society. This idea of applicable learning stemmed from Washington’s time spent at Wayland Seminary. Along with agricultural studies, Washington taught students proper hygiene and manners, which he learned from Mrs. Ruffner (Washington 126-127). Washington believed that cleanliness was an essential quality that would help the students of Tuskegee thrive in society because of his own successful admittance to the Hampton Institute based on his cleaning skills. On top of their other studies, students at Tuskegee were also trained to be teachers (Washington 126-127). After graduating from Tuskegee, students usually returned to their homes and taught the people of their hometown the agriculture and practical skills that they learned while attending Tuskegee. This spread of practical education allowed for African Americans who could not afford to pay for a college education or did not have the time to attend college to attain agricultural knowledge to sustain themselves.

The education of African American students at the Tuskegee Institute was based on a practical system that taught hygiene, agriculture, and teaching skills. These subjects were based on previous findings and no new knowledge was sought, thus the educational system at Tuskegee was very scholastic. Washington implemented this practical and scholastic education method at Tuskegee because newly emancipated African Americans did not encompass the essential skills needed to function in society. African Americans who were prior slaves needed to learn scholastically before they could attempt to learn dynamically.

Washington engaged in public speaking and voiced his views on the subject of education for African Americans. In 1895, Washington spoke at the Cotton States and International Exposition in Atlanta (Thornbrough 26). In his speech at the Cotton States and International Exposition, Washington verbalized his philosophy of gradualism: African Americans must learn industrial skills to support their families before gradually proceeding to political positions or other learning. Washington declared that “it is at the bottom of life we [the colored race] must begin, not at the top,” thus African Americans should “cast down your bucket where you are” and begin laboring (Washington 220). This mass labor force would additionally benefit whites by solving the issue of the abundance of “undeveloped material resources of the South…” (Thornbrough 42). Washington also stressed that equal societal and political status should not simply be handed to African Americans but rather obtained through hard-work and struggle (Washington 223). This speech won Washington support from both races and soon after, Washington became a national figure and the leader of the African American race (Thornbrough 7).

W. E. Burghardt Du Bois (1868-1963) was the first African American man to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard and became the main critic of Washington (Thornbrough 9). In 1903, Du Bois published “Of Mr. Booker T. Washington and Others” in Souls of Black Folks which publicly criticized Washington’s philosophy of gradualism (Thornbrough 26). Du Bois believed that gradualism was based on Washington’s personal thought that the African American race was inferior and must submit to the white race (Thornbrough 124). He judged Washington’s call for industrial education and labor as the cause of 3 things: “the disfranchisement of the Negro, the legal creation of a distinct status of civil inferiority for the Negro, [and] the steady withdrawal of aid from institutions for the higher training of the Negro” (Thornbrough 124-125). It seemed to Du Bois that Washington’s philosophies assisted in the creation of segregation laws, thus hindering the success of African Americans in society (Thornbrough 9). Du Bois’ ideology behind higher education was that a “Talented Tenth” would lead African Americans to a higher education and that white leadership would not allow the African American race to reach its full potential (Du Bois 236). While, Washington and Du Bois did not directly oppose each other, their philosophies conflicted with one another and the two men competed to gain followers. Washington had the support of powerful white men while Du Bois gained more support from African Americans (Thornbrough 9).

In 1909, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, or NAACP, was founded with Du Bois as the Director of Publications and Research (Thornbrough 9). The NAACP fought for African Americans “politically free from disfranchisement, legally free from caste and socially free from insult” (Du Bois 256). Du Bois and the NCAAP pushed for African Americans to be treated as an equal race by whites, which juxtaposed with Washington’s gradualism. Washington’s power and perception as the leader of the African American race began to wane as the NAACP gained power (Thornbrough 10).

Washington’s critics believed that Washington’s philosophy of gradualism and his teaching methods caused African Americans to be treated inferiorly. However, the scholastic learning and labor that Washington emphasized was not created to cause African Americans to be permanently inferior. The African American race required scholastic learning before moving to dynamic learning, learning that was equal to the white race. Once the educational gap was decreased and African Americans could sufficiently sustain themselves, Washington believed that education for African American could be modified to a more dynamic system. Unfortunately, this shift towards dynamic education did not occur during Washington’s life time. However, one student of Tuskegee, George Washington Carver, proved that Washington did not intend for African Americans to only receive a substandard education.

In 1896, during Tuskegee’s early years, an African American man named George Washington Carver (1860-1943) started teaching agricultural techniques at Tuskegee (Brodie 81). Carver worked to advance the agricultural system of the South and to teach African Americans top agricultural practices (Brodie 81). Carver introduced the peanut crop to the agricultural department of Tuskegee and made more than three-hundred products from peanuts through his study of the peanut (Woodroof 2). The peanut industry became massive during World War II and transformed into a two-hundred million dollar industry by 1938 (Brodie 82). Carver’s research at Tuskegee was not the usual scholastic education but his research still had a practical use. The dynamic process of higher education was prominent in Carver’s research; thus Tuskegee showed traces of dynamic learning throughout its years of strict practical education. This hint of dynamic research proves that Washington did not oppose dynamic learning as long as the research and new knowledge was practically applicable to society. Carver’s peanut crop became a large and successful agricultural industry that students could learn about and apply to their lives to support themselves in society. The education of the students of Tuskegee was very scholastic, yet dynamic learning was supported when it practically aided the closing of the educational gap between the white and African American races. Washington did not intend for African Americans to only receive a scholastic education, he simply believed that African Americans needed a practical and scholastic education before proceeding to dynamic learning.

During his life, Washington married Fannie N. Smith, another graduate of Hampton, in 1882 (Washington 146-147). Fannie birthed a daughter named Portia before dying in 1884 (Thornbrough 6). One year later Washington remarried to Olivia Davidson who was an assistant principal at Tuskegee at the time (Thornbrough 6). Olivia died four years later in 1889 after having two children, Booker Taliaferro and Ernest Davidson (Thornbrough 6). Washington remarried a third time to Margaret Murray while she was the principal of Tuskegee in 1893 (Thornbrough 6). Margaret was involved in multiple organizations related to the bettering of education for African Americans and African American women (Washington 268). All of his wives were devoted to Washington and his goal of developing Tuskegee into a distinguished school. Washington was so engaged in Tuskegee that he was attracted to women who were intertwined with the school as well. Washington continually worked towards improving education for the African American race and remained married to Tuskegee and his third wife Margaret until his death. On November 14, 1915, Washington died due to physical illness caused by the burden of his nonstop work (Mathews 300).

Washington taught the students of Tuskegee a practical education that allowed them to function appropriately in society, to improve agriculture, and to teach essential skills to the uneducated. Eventually, the Tuskegee Institute moved away from its original scholastic educational system that was based entirely on agriculture and Tuskegee grew to include a veterinary hospital and a flight training institute (Tuskegee University). In 1985, the Tuskegee Institute became defined as a university after the implication of dynamic research in biosciences and engineering (Tuskegee University). Today, Tuskegee University’s mission includes a research element that dynamically “furthers the bodies of knowledge already discovered…for the continued growth of individuals and society” and practically applies this knowledge “…to help resolve problems of modern society” (Tuskegee University).

The original purposes of Central Washington University and the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute are comparable to the principles that Washington based Tuskegee University on. Similarly to the establishment of the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, Central Washington University was founded by Benjamin Franklin Barge in 1891 as the Washington State Normal School which taught students to be educators (Central Washington University). The Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute was also established, in 1868, to teach African Americans trade and industrial skills (Hampton University). Tuskegee, Hampton, and the Washington State Normal School were created to teach students a specific vocation that they could use practically to function in and improve their communities, not to teach students how to acquire and expand new knowledge. The students of these three schools received their educations based on scholastic educational systems. However, this scholasticism was not permanently maintained and both Hampton and the Washington State Normal School eventually progressed to center student learning around a dynamic educational system. Hampton Institute became Hampton University in 1984 after approximately thirty years of constant dynamic growth (Hampton University). At Hampton University today, “Research and public service are integral parts of Hampton’s mission. In order to enhance scholarship and discovery, the faculty is engaged in writing, research, and grantsmanship” (Hampton University). In 1961, Central became Central Washington State College, a college for more than just a practical education in teaching (Central Washington University). Over time, Central transitioned into a dynamic place of learning and today Central has over 150 degrees (Central Washington University). Now, the mission of the Central Washington University is to “prepare students for responsible citizenship, responsible stewardship of the earth, and enlightened and productive lives” as well as “to encourage lifelong learning, and to enhance the opportunities of its students” (Central Washington University).

An example of a scholastic course at Central Washington University is The University. As previously stated, Central students in The University simply research factors in the formation of higher education and reiterate the information discovered. This research and repetition of old knowledge is this first step in learning and is comparable to the scholastic educational system implemented by Booker T. Washington at the Tuskegee Institute. However, The University is only a two-hundred level course designed for students with a sophomore credit standing who are transitioning from complete scholastic learning to more dynamic upper-level thinking. If there was an additional section following the same curriculum of The University, then that section would be a dynamically based course in which students would use the knowledge learned in the University and expand it to find new knowledge.

The Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute was founded to educate the masses of African Americans who had received no prior education during their time spent in slavery. The educational method at Tuskegee corresponded with Booker T. Washington’s personal ideologies, which arose from Washington’s education and his first-hand experience with slavery. Washington recognized that there was a vast education gap between the white and African American races and that the African American race desperately needed a practical education in order to close this gap. Thus, Washington created an educational method for the students of Tuskegee Institute, which taught them the practical trade of agriculture that students would apply to their newly emancipated lives to be successful in American society. This system was created to teach the already known practices of agriculture and would not explore new knowledge; consequently the early students of Tuskegee were educated scholastically. Washington was not opposed to dynamic learning; he simply thought that a practical and scholastic education was more valuable for the African American race at the time. Washington believed that a practical education would lead to the significant shrinkage of the educational gap and once this occurred, African Americans could return to learning and developing new knowledge that did not necessarily have any specific purpose in society. In time, the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute shifted to a dynamic educational system and became Tuskegee University. Similarly, Hampton University and Central Washington University changed from their original scholastic foundation to universities of dynamic learning.

Bibliography

Brodie, James M. Created Equal: The Lives and Ideas of Black American Innovators. New York: W. Morrow, 1993. Print.

Du, Bois W. E. B. The Autobiography of W. E. B. Dubois: A Soliloquy on Viewing My Life from the Last Decade of Its First Century. New York: International Publishers, 1968. Print.

Jackson, S. (2012). Dynamic Educational Systems. Central Washington University. Lecture series.

Mathews, Basil. Booker T. Washington, Educator and Interracial Interpreter. Cambridge:Harvard Univ. Press, 1948. Print.

Thornbrough, Emma L. Booker T. Washington. Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall, 1969. Print.

Washington, Booker T. Up from Slavery: An Autobiography. Williamstown, Mass: CornerHouse Publishers, 1978. Print.

Woodroof, Jasper G. Peanuts: Production, Processing, Products. Westport, Conn: AviPub. Co, 1973. Print.

Newcomen and Watt Illustrate Learning Techniques

by Emily Peters

Thomas Newcomen and James Watt, craftsmen in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, revolutionized the industrial era. Newcomen was born in 1663 and died in 1729. Watt was born in 1736 and died in 1819. Feeding off of each other’s ideas, together they produced the steam engine. Thomas Newcomen engineered the idea of atmospheric pressure to create an engine using steam (Rolt). Later, when studying at Glasgow University, Watt came across the university’s model of Newcomen’s steam engine and further researched the idea of steam after Professor Robison suggested using steam for a wheel carriage. Watt, never having researched steam before, learned french and italian to read the books on steam (Carnegie). Both Newcomen and Watt came from a family with great history. Newcomen’s great grandfather, Thomas Newcomen, was known for his prize winning vessel. His father, Elias, also a merchant, was a trader (Rolt). Watt’s grandfather, Thomas Watt, founded a school of mathematics and was one of the first citizens of Greenock. His father, a craftsmen too, lost a ship and thus spent his life devoted to teaching James the trade of being a craftsmen. His father taught him to build different mathematical instruments. Agnes Muirhead, Watt’s mother, having lost most of her children previous to Watt, educated Watt at home as a precaution to keeping him safe. Because of Watt’s education being confined to his bedroom, he learned skills not learned in grammar school. He had an interest in learning all trades and sought out all knowledge unfamiliar to him(Carnegie). Lord Jeffrey describes Watt’s accumulation of knowledge by saying,

He never appeared, therefore, to be at all encumbered or perplexed with the verbiage of the dull books he perused or the idle talk he listened; but to have at once extracted, by a kind of intellectual alchemy, all that was worthy of attention, and to have reduced it, for his own use, to its true value and its simplest form. And thus it often happened that a great deal more was learned…than an ordinary student… (Carnegie 203)

This illustrates that Watt desired to continuously learn. Watt left home at the age of seventeen to study under Dr. Dick, professor of natural philosophy at Glasgow. To be an apprentice, Watt was supposed to study for seven years but refused as he could learn the same amount of material in one year. After taking a break due to sickness, Watt returned to Glasgow to be the first instrument maker. as he had the skills he learned from his father. Dr. Dick employed him for five pounds to repair mathematical instruments. Later after discovering Newcomen’s steam engine model, Watt began researching the steam engine. In 1761, Watt began developing his own steam engine model. This model was more steam efficient than Newcomen’s model. Aside from the steam engine, Watt developed several other inventions (Carnegie). Newcomen and Watt’s work can be seen in higher education today. People advance their education by attending college to do an in-depth study on a particular topic instead of a variety of topics as learned in primary and secondary education. Watt wanting to expand his knowledge on his craftsmen work, studied at a university. The concept of the university is to study closely under faculty to do extensive research. Instead of attending classes, Watt designed experiments under the direction of professors. This also is seen in universities. Watt exhibited a practical approach to his studies. He accumulated information and determined a practical use for the knowledge learned, similar to sociological determinism. Sociological determinism is creating the technology necessary to fulfill a desire (Jackson). Watt’s study of the science of harmonics in order to help him build an organ is an example. He sought to build an organ than found a method how.

The concept of having a practical purpose for all learned knowledge is seen in higher education because students are taught to apply the concepts they learn to situations outside of the classroom, demonstrating the reason students attend college which is to learn skills to apply to a career after school. In addition to independent study and applying concepts learned to practical situations, Watt developed the copying press (Carnegie). The copying press is important to the university and higher education. The copying press allowed for papers to not have to be hand-written multiple times. Without the copying press, Watt’s drawings for the steam engine models, nor could scholarly works have been published. In the university professors pass out papers, the professor would have to hand-write multiple copies if it were not for the copying press. The ideal higher education is to do independent study with a professor. Students should also be able to have a practical use for the knowledge they are learning. Meanwhile, being able to copy papers is useful to professors. Newcomen and Watt’s research to develop a steam engine that could move water by changing it’s state and converting energy, expanded into research and learning methods used today in universities and higher education.

The development of the steam engine came from Watt’s persistence in furthering his accumulation of knowledge in the university setting. Newcomen and Watt both were inspired by the steam from a tea kettle. The steam engine was an invention to convert energy and the state of water. The original purpose was to help move water out of mines which were flooding. Thomas Newcomen used the previous work by Thomas Savery and to create a steam engine where atmospheric pressure was applied. A vacuum worked with a cylinder by condensing the steam. This model was inefficient because it was open thus the steam was being released. Watt, after discovering Professor Black’s theory of latent heat, determined that water is a compound and not an element that existed in three states. He determined this by heating the water until it reached 212 degrees where steam will rise. He experimented by adding pressure to the steam before blowing it onto the water and discovered that no matter the weight, the temperature will still raise by the same amount. This led to his steam engine model, by increasing the pressure of steam by enclosing the cylinder, the pump will be more efficient in blowing off steam. Lauder describes Watt’s use of steam as a natural energy to create a pump. He says

Now to us who live on the earth there is only one source of power-the sun. Darken the sun and every engine on the earth’s surface would soon stop…Deducting the atmospheric absorption, it is still true that the sun delivers on each square yard of the earth’s surface, when he is shining, the equivalent of one horse-power working continuously. Enough mechanical power goes to waste on the college campus to warm and light and supply all the manufactories, street railroads and other consumers of mechanical power in the city. (Carnegie 49).

This demonstrates Watt’s conservation of using the sources available to him. He uses the heat of the sun to heat water until it turns into steam. The sun provides more energy than one horse-power will. If people relied on natural energy instead of energy produced by man, then more work can be done. Using available resources to complete a task is symbolic to higher education today. There are several resources at a university to help students with their studies. If students use the available resources, then they will be able to further their education. One available resource to the student is the professors. Professors have advanced degrees in their subject and can teach students about the topic as long as help the student research. The professors can also help the student connect with businesses to help them in the future. An education is worth what the student puts into it. Watt uses not only his natural resources but he also studies closely under professors to help guide him in his experiments. He learns different skills to be able to work as a optician or instrument maker while he waits for patents on his steam engine models. For example, when he first moved to Glasgow he became an optician until he was able to further his education. Watt also learned as much as possible in a short time. He did not want to take seven years learning material, he knew was possible to learn in one year. He wanted to save time so that he would have time to learn new knowledge. If Watt had not continuously sought new knowledge, he would not have learned enough to build the steam engine. He accomplished everything he desired. In higher education, students can accomplish any task as long as they take the time to study and do the work. Persistence in studying improves education and helps fulfill goals.

There is a use for all knowledge learned as Watt demonstrates in his studies. Watt patented six items. Four of these patents were for the steam engine. The first patent was for the efficiency of steam on January 5, 1769 in his partnership with Roebuck. Roebuck paid the Watt’s debts and helped provide money for Watt’s experiments. In 1770, Watt moved to partner with Boulton instead. He invented the screw propeller while working on the canals. The screw propeller was invented with the purpose of moving boats through the canal. In 1782, Watt added two new patents on the design of his steam engine. He designed steam for the use of locomotives. Using Stephenson’s railway model, he added steam. This allowed for a faster mode of transportation. When Watt first journeyed to Glasgow, the trip was twelve days on horseback. Now with the steam engine, the trip would only take eight hours (Carnegie). All these were invented because of the knowledge Watt had accumulated. Lord Jeffrey describes Watt’s sorting of knowledge that was of practical use by saying “…his power of digesting and arranging in its proper place all the information eh received, and of casting aside and rejecting, as it were instinctively, whatever was worthless or immaterial” (Carnegie 231). He learned about the compounds that make up water to help him to understand the three states being gas, liquid and solid. He used this knowledge and put it to use to improve the steam engine. After learning about how to create circular motion, he combined it with his knowledge of steam to produce a circular motion of wheels (Carnegie). This idea of learning material and putting it to use can be applied to higher education. When communication of knowledge first started, there were four steps. These four steps were acquisition of new knowledge, manipulation to discover new things, distribution, and archiving of truths (Jackson).

Students are able to understand and remember information when they make connections to the knowledge. If one hears information but has no use for it, they are less likely to remember it than if they have a purpose for it or tell others. The university is set up to allow students to perform the knowledge they have learned. Carnegie states universities are “where any man can study everything worth studying” (36). This illustrates that a student should be able to study any subject they choose at the university. Several majors in the university today have practicums where the students do research with the professor or go out and work in the field they have been studying to demonstrate what they learned. The students are able to see how they can apply the knowledge to their lives. Gustafson says, “Watt understood (if only implicitly) that principles are man’s means of organizing his experiences; and that a principle that is detached from its particulars is meaningless and useless (New England Objectivist Society).” This illustrates that not connecting information learned to an experience will not be remembered. In higher education, students study concepts that they want to apply to their careers. Watt’s practical approach to his learning is the precursor to the classes in the university.

Newcomen and Watt contributed to higher education today. Watt complained that there was a lack of skilled workmen to build his engine. Carnegie claimed that the difference between Watt’s steam engine and excellence was the skills of the workmen. While partnered with Boulton, they created the first Benefit Society of Workmen. The workers did the work according to the wages they earned. They were also honored with a dinner from Boulton and Watt. This lead to engineers being trained in the university because Watt discovered that people lacked the skills to work on steam engines. In 1780, Watt created the copying press. The copying press was designed to copy writing that had been written in the past twenty-four hours. This allowed Watt to not have to redraw his designs to send out to be built. It saved him time by only having to draw his designs once (Carnegie). This invention led to more advanced models of the copying machine. Prior to the copying press was the the printing press. The printing press, designed by Gutenberg in the 15th century, connected with Watt’s steam engine was able to mass produce textbooks which allowed knowledge to spread past the university (The Printing Press). More people learned to read and became literate which allowed them to learn other skills. The copying machine is used today in education. Students are able to print off papers and copy sources needed to study. Without copy machines, professors would not be able to give hand outs to the class. Newcomen and Watt also have influenced educational societies. The International Society for the History of Engineering and Technology is named after Thomas Newcomen’s steam engine contribution (Newcomen Society). When Watt and Boulton did not renew their partnership, they passed it to their sons. Their sons formed the scientific library in Greenock in 1816 which contains more than 15,000 volumes of books. The Watt Prize was founded by Watt in 1809 in Glasgow University to support future students studying natural philosophy and chemistry. These contributions have ensured that future generations can continue to learn.

James Watt perfected the steam engine that Thomas Newcomen invented. This advanced science as Watt learned how steam can be used to provide energy. His studies furthered as he searched for new knowledge on steam but learned other concepts in the process of doing so. Watt continuously sought to learn more and that progressed into the ideal students in the universities today. Students attend universities to learn more about a particular subject. Not only did Watt learn new knowledge, he applied the concepts to daily life. By applying knowledge to daily routines, people remember the information as it is a way of communication. Not only are they applying the knowledge to their life, but they are showing others what they learned too. By demonstrating their knowledge, others are learning the knowledge and will be able to tell more people. Sharing the information helps keep the knowledge from being lost. If Watt had not applied the principles of water as a compound to the steam engine, then future generations would not know until someone else discovered it. Watt provided a way to communicate newly learned information in mass by creating the copying press. Information could be shared by duplicating handwritten work so more people could see. These concepts shape the basis for studying at a university. Newcomen and Watt forged how students obtain knowledge in higher education.

 

Bibliography

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Gustafson, Mike. “James Watt as the Embodiment of Francis Bacon’s Philosophy.” New England Objectivist Society. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. ##<http:// newenglandobjectivistsociety.wordpress.com/2012/03/07/james-watt-as- the-embodiment-of-francis-bacons-philosophy/>.
Jackson, Steve. “Greek Enlightenment.” The University. Central Washington University, Ellensburg. 15 Jan. 2013. Lecture.
“The Newcomen Society.” For the Study of the History of Engineering and Technology » History, Aims and Objectives. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Feb. 2013. ##<http:// newcomen.com/?page_id=30>.
“The Printing Press.” The Printing Press. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Feb. 2013. <http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/press.html>.

Rolt, L. T., and J. S. Allen. The Steam Engine of Thomas Newcomen. Hartington, Eng.: Moorland Pub., 1977. Print.

Authentic Assessment in Directing and Cinema Classes

by Steve N. Jackson

The directing class is a unique educational experience for students. Students in the class are presented a real world setting that closely simulates the experiences they will face on graduate. The course uses active learning, small team integration, service learning, authentic assessment, and a unique professor / student relationship to produce a learning environment that allows students to integrate the knowledge they have gained from previous classes into a single senior level working experience. It also acts as a catch for students whose knowledge and skills may be imperfect, and allows them to learn from their fellow students.

The main course experience revolves around a real-world production environment where a small team of students, lead by a student leader, working on a video production that the students have significant say in its progress and completion. The National Academy of Science says that this learning, which they call authentic experience learning, happens when, “teachers focus inquiry predominately on real phenomena (or in our case, production experiences)…where students are given investigations or guided toward fashioning investigations that are demanding but within their capabilities” (cited in Daniels & Bizar, 1998, p. 171)

The result is that assessment cannot be by simple rubric (where students succeed if they do X) or testing (where students return information on subject Y in the order and manner called on by the professor). Instead, the course judges student performance

based on “intellectual accomplishments that are worthwhile, significant, and meaningful” (Wehlage, Newmann, & Secada, 1996, p. 23). In Directing class this is measured using a four element scale:

1) A formative employee performance review carried out three times during the term based on actual industry review systems used in large corporations.

2) A media review that looks objectively at the proposed product and the final product produced during the class to determine if the final product meets required industry standards. This review is also completed at intermediate stages in the process to provide feed back and course correction for students.

3) Weekly short interactions where the week’s work effort is quantitatively measured against a metric of how much needed to be accomplished to meet project goals.

4) A skills assessment that asks the question: did the student learn their basic skills. This is usually only performed once to determine if skill remediation is needed this late in the game.

Authentic assessment is carried out by using industry standard corporate media assessment instruments that measure worker effort and progress. These assessments are formative in nature, meaning that they do not result in a grade at first offering. Instead, students are directed on how to make changes to their work progress, what

skills they have to acquire moving forward, and what information they are missing. They are also informed what they are doing right, what information they have that is useful and effective, and the positive aspects of their performance. Students then reply with a letter outlining their plans for improvement. When students meet the requirements of this plan of improvement, their evaluations are passed to the professor who changes the formative reviews into a summative grade. In all cases, the students are not penalized for problems at the start of the process, but are rewarded for their work to fix problems that are found by having their record cleaned up.

The production process offers some distinct learning advantages for the dedicated student. Learning outcomes in classes that use these formats are very high. This is because students are not only under the watchful eye of the professor, but are being monitored by a student producer. The chance the student can “slip through the cracks” is limited. The process of active learning assures strong retention of skills and theories, because as they are applied they are moved from short term memory to long term memory, the process being reinforced by practical use of the theories and skills.

Difficulties in the Process

The main difficulties in the process are, 1) student fear of active learning environments based on overexposure to lecture courses and their rigid grading environments, 2) fear of innovative teaching techniques by faculty and administration, because of the possibility of students complaints by students who are scared of the real world contexts of the class, 3) the very real (although relatively rare) chance of student group failure and the resulting failure to produce client product, and 4) the

elevated time requirements on the part of faculty to provide for innovative educational experience. In each case, these objectives can be overcome by communication and education of different publics. Students, for example, need to be constantly made aware than authentic experience classes are formative and informational, and the grade they receive is completely in their power to change. Fear of innovative teaching is another example of a disability classes such as Directing face. It is rarely possible to make every student in a class happy with not following the usual lecture and test format. The results often are single student complaints that when responded to incorrectly can result in the entire class being shut down, ruining the educational experience for many students. The faculty member who teaches using authentic assessment, active learning, and service learning must communicate to supervisors early and often the innovative nature of the class, and seek out ways to impress on them the effectiveness of the methods.

Bibliography

Daniels, H., and Bizar, M. (1998). Methods that matter: six structures for best practice classrooms. Portland, ME. Stenhouse Publishers.

Wehlage, G.G., Newmann, F.M., & Secada, W.G. (1996). Standards for authentic assessment and pedagogy. In F.M. Newmann & Associates (Ed.), Authentic assessment: Restructuring schools for intellectual quality (pp. 75-104). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Authentic Assessment in Directing and Cinema Class

by Steve Jackson

The directing class is a unique educational experience for students. Students in the class are presented a real world setting that closely simulates the experiences they will face on graduate. The course uses active learning, small team integration, service learning, authentic assessment, and a unique professor / student relationship to produce a learning environment that allows students to integrate the knowledge they have gained from previous classes into a single senior level working experience. It also acts as a catch for students whose knowledge and skills may be imperfect, and allows them to learn from their fellow students.

The main course experience revolves around a real-world production environment where a small team of students, lead by a student leader, working on a video production that the students have significant say in its progress and completion. The National Academy of Science says that this learning, which they call authentic experience learning, happens when, “teachers focus inquiry predominately on real phenomena (or in our case, production experiences)…where students are given investigations or guided toward fashioning investigations that are demanding but within their capabilities” (cited in Daniels & Bizar, 1998, p. 171)

The result is that assessment cannot be by simple rubric (where students succeed if they do X) or testing (where students return information on subject Y in the order and manner called on by the professor). Instead, the course judges student performance

based on “intellectual accomplishments that are worthwhile, significant, and meaningful” (Wehlage, Newmann, & Secada, 1996, p. 23). In Directing class this is measured using a four element scale:

1) A formative employee performance review carried out three times during the term based on actual industry review systems used in large corporations.

2) A media review that looks objectively at the proposed product and the final product produced during the class to determine if the final product meets required industry standards. This review is also completed at intermediate stages in the process to provide feed back and course correction for students.

3) Weekly short interactions where the week’s work effort is quantitatively measured against a metric of how much needed to be accomplished to meet project goals.

4) A skills assessment that asks the question: did the student learn their basic skills. This is usually only performed once to determine if skill remediation is needed this late in the game.

Authentic assessment is carried out by using industry standard corporate media assessment instruments that measure worker effort and progress. These assessments are formative in nature, meaning that they do not result in a grade at first offering. Instead, students are directed on how to make changes to their work progress, what

skills they have to acquire moving forward, and what information they are missing. They are also informed what they are doing right, what information they have that is useful and effective, and the positive aspects of their performance. Students then reply with a letter outlining their plans for improvement. When students meet the requirements of this plan of improvement, their evaluations are passed to the professor who changes the formative reviews into a summative grade. In all cases, the students are not penalized for problems at the start of the process, but are rewarded for their work to fix problems that are found by having their record cleaned up.

The production process offers some distinct learning advantages for the dedicated student. Learning outcomes in classes that use these formats are very high. This is because students are not only under the watchful eye of the professor, but are being monitored by a student producer. The chance the student can “slip through the cracks” is limited. The process of active learning assures strong retention of skills and theories, because as they are applied they are moved from short term memory to long term memory, the process being reinforced by practical use of the theories and skills.

 

Difficulties in the Process

The main difficulties in the process are, 1) student fear of active learning environments based on overexposure to lecture courses and their rigid grading environments, 2) fear of innovative teaching techniques by faculty and administration, because of the possibility of students complaints by students who are scared of the real world contexts of the class, 3) the very real (although relatively rare) chance of student group failure and the resulting failure to produce client product, and 4) the

elevated time requirements on the part of faculty to provide for innovative educational experience. In each case, these objectives can be overcome by communication and education of different publics. Students, for example, need to be constantly made aware than authentic experience classes are formative and informational, and the grade they receive is completely in their power to change. Fear of innovative teaching is another example of a disability classes such as Directing face. It is rarely possible to make every student in a class happy with not following the usual lecture and test format. The results often are single student complaints that when responded to incorrectly can result in the entire class being shut down, ruining the educational experience for many students. The faculty member who teaches using authentic assessment, active learning, and service learning must communicate to supervisors early and often the innovative nature of the class, and seek out ways to impress on them the effectiveness of the methods.

Bibliography

Daniels, H., and Bizar, M. (1998). Methods that matter: six structures for best practice classrooms. Portland, ME. Stenhouse Publishers.

Wehlage, G.G., Newmann, F.M., & Secada, W.G. (1996). Standards for authentic assessment and pedagogy. In F.M. Newmann & Associates (Ed.), Authentic assessment: Restructuring schools for intellectual quality (pp. 75-104). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.